Some kids are naturally fast. They run, talk, complete homework assignments and do all sorts of things at a rate that seems appropriate for their age. Other kids don’t, or, perhaps it would be fairer to say they can’t. These are kids who may have what are known as processing speed deficits. In my work as a child psychologist who specializes in paediatric neuropsychology, it seems that I’m evaluating more and more kids with processing speed deficits every year. In conversations with other professionals around the country, many tell me they are experiencing the same trend.
Is this a real increase in the population at large? Is it an artefact of the types of curriculum used in our schools? Is too much value placed on product and not enough on experiencing the process? Or, does it just seem like a bigger problem because what was once regarded as a behavioural trait is now a real disability in a world in which quick processing has become a more important necessity? It’s impossible to answer this question with the data we have now, but regardless of the cause, the emotional toll of having slower processing speed has significant consequences for children.
Processing speed involves one or more of the following functions: the amount of time it takes to perceive information (this can be through any of the senses, but usually through the visual and auditory channels), process information and/or formulate or enact a response. Another way to define processing speed is to say that it’s the time required to perform an intellectual task or the amount of work that can be completed within a certain period of time. Even more simply, processing speed could be defined as how long it takes to get stuff done.
Because we place such a high value on doing things quickly in our culture, it can be difficult to live with a nervous system that needs more time to process information. In addition, most of the kids I see who have processing speed problems have other primary diagnoses such as ADHD, a learning disability, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, often it’s the impaired processing speed that can eventually be one of the more challenging problems in a child’s profile. In fact, perhaps the most difficult question parents ask me is, “What exactly is processing speed, and is there any way to fix it?”
The short answer to that question is, “It’s complicated and we don’t know how to fix it.” It’s complicated because there is no single region of the brain that is responsible for the primary problem with processing speed; rather, one’s ability to process information involves a complex network of different parts of the brain, any or all of which may result in slower speed of processing. Regardless of the reasons for the deficit, the real world impairments are significant. In the studies done at the Learning and Emotional Assessment Program (LEAP) at Mass General, we have found that:
- Boys are more affected by processing speed deficits than girls (70% of the children with significant processing speed deficits were boys). When you consider that many experts have argued that the typical elementary school classroom is already structured heavily to favour the learning style of girls, this presents many boys with an ever greater challenge than most teachers realise.
- Social difficulties are common in about 1/3 of the children with processing speed deficits, and these social difficulties are not just limited to kids who also have ASD-related diagnoses.
- Language impairments were reported in about 40% of the children.
- The vast majority of the children with processing speed deficits (77%) were currently receiving services under an IEP or 504 plan, which indicates the level of impact this has on academic functioning.
- Having a processing speed deficit is not the same as having ADHD, as only 61% of the kids with ADHD also had processing speed deficits (as compared to their age-matched peers). Significant numbers of children with other diagnoses also present with this profile, most frequently: reading disorder (28% of the sample), math disorder (20%), generalized anxiety disorder (20%), autism spectrum disorder (17%) and disorder of written expression (15%).
Given that the causes and co-morbid diagnoses are so varied, what can be recommended?
In our book Bright Kids Who Can’t Keep Up, my colleague and I describe how to put into practice the Three A’s of Processing Speed: accepting a child’s unique learning style, helping him or her to accommodate any learning challenges and advocating for a child’s need. Eventually, a child also needs to integrate these “A’s” by better understanding his unique qualities and accepting those qualities as being an important and valuable part of who he is, learning to make accommodations for himself and advocating for himself in school and work environments.
In terms of acceptance, the first step is to help parents and children acknowledge that there is a problem. Often times, a comprehensive evaluation is what’s necessary to see concretely where the processing speed deficits fall in comparison to other areas of cognition. Processing speed deficits have significant effects on life at home, social relationships and school functioning. The quicker parents and kids recognise these problems, the quicker they can be addressed. For example, at home, time spent doing homework is frequently the most commonly reported problem, and admitting that it’s a problem can be the first step in finding an appropriate school-based accommodation such as a reduce homework load.
In terms of accommodations at home, keeping the environment structured and predictable is associated with better functioning. In any environment, changing the rate of speaking, assisting in time management and using both verbal and visual cues are recommended strategies.
Advocating can be tricky for parents, but it’s important that they serve as advocates because their children are often described as “lazy,” “unmotivated,” or “not smart” by teachers and even other family members. Teaching family members and teachers about a child’s cognitive profile can be one of the most important roles a parent has, particularly when it eventually includes teaching a child how to advocate for him or herself. Many people in today’s fast-paced world don’t understand why kids with slower processing act the way that they do. They don’t understand why someone can’t just pick up the pace. This can make it even more difficult for kids who have emotional difficulties, such as depression and anxiety. The relationship between processing speed and emotional difficulties is likely somewhat bi-directional, and can become a vicious cycle for many children. Thus, children with slow processing speed are at risk for lower self-esteem, depression and anxiety—and if these emotional difficulties arise, they slow down children even further.
Our world has become more fast-paced than ever. In order to be successful in today’s classrooms, a child needs to be able to process a large amount of information quickly, and be able to shift back and forth between different types of tasks. Although experienced as a very real deficit by these kids, it’s important to note that there is a valuable place for kids with slower processing speed within our world. In fact, one could argue that much of the world’s progress has been made by deep, slow thinkers. Whether it be in innovation, art, or literature, many of our most treasured works were likely completed by gifted individuals who worked at their own pace. Those of us who work with these children need to help them learn to embrace their challenges while working with the systems in which they live to better understand them. Otherwise, we risk losing much of the value these deep, slower thinkers and producers bring to the all-too-quick and superficial world in which we live.
This blog is the first in a two-part series from Dr. Braaten entitled Bright Kids Who Can’t Keep Up.